Finding The Right Swimwear For Your Body Type 

Finding The Right Swimwear For Your Body Type 

Everyone seems to be waiting on summer’s friendly rays, but for some people, bathing suit season may mean agony in the dressing room. Your time in the dressing room shouldn’t be painful. Shopping for plus size swimwear in any size should be fun and easy when you take the time to do it right.  

The first step is that you have to make note of your assets. Pick out your most appealing features and choose colors, shapes, and patterns to compliment them using some of the slimming tips mentioned below. Taking the time to understand exactly how we can use these shapes, colors and patterns in the swimwear to work to our advantage will help you create a slimmer look this summer.

Take a good look at your body shape in the mirror. If you’re uncomfortable with the way you look, don’t simply opt for the one-piece suit complete with sewn in skirt! Learn to dress your body type to maximize what you have.

For instance, pear-shaped bodies are those who are comparatively curvier on the bottom and more narrow in the middle. The pear-shaped body can most often get away with any two-piece bikini, but definitely needs more support up top. Be sure to choose a top with bra-like qualities to ensure you are adequately supported by the straps.

A triangle shaped body, one with a small chest and larger hips, will want to attract more attention to her top half to better balance her proportions. A push-up top will help set off the proportions as well as making great cleavage! An inverted triangle shaped body will want to attract more attention to her lower half. To do this, add a skirt or sarong to help better weigh down the bottom half.

The most difficult shape is that of the oval, small on top and bottom but larger in the middle. Have no fear, swimwear designers have long been making control-top one-piece bathing suits to help tuck everything that needs to be kept in place.

Dark colors are excellent at concealing areas that you would like to hide, whereas light colors and patterns do the exact opposite. If your bust is ample, but your stomach equally so, perhaps a light top and dark midsection would be the perfect match for your body shape.

Still feeling uncomfortable? A sheer robe as a cover-up can help quell fears and cover skin. Amazing heels will help lengthen legs and make them appear more shapely but if you will be walking in the sand, heels are not advisable. But of course, confidence is the most alluring asset of all.

If you want to better flaunt your assets, you should opt for brighter colors. On the other hand, if you want to draw attention away from a particular body part, then you should choose a dark solid color. As for skin tone, women with pale skin would do well with swimsuits with darker hues like navy, maroon and dark purple whilst women with darker skin tones should opt for swimwear with light colors.

Another thing that you should consider before buying plus size swimwear is which cut you should settle on. If it is your desire to divert attention away from your waist, then opt for a one-piece swimsuit. But should you like to attract attention to it, you may buy a tankini. Boy shorts can create an hourglass body shape effect so women with large busts may use it to make their hips look broader. On the other hand, women with short legs or long torsos will look best in high-cut bikinis because they make the legs appear longer. If you want to move the attention to your bust, halter and tie-front bikini tops are effective. Bandeau tops can make the bust look wider and are therefore perfect for women with pear body shape.

Trends come and go, but determining the right plus size swimwear in terms of body type, color and cut can help you stand out during the summer season.

A good tan may be the most important part of finishing off your look. This tan does not have to be real, it can a spray tan by one of the many products available on the market. Never jeopardize your health for swimsuit season and be sure to wear sunscreen when under the suns harmful rays for an extended period of time. Above all else, have fun with your look and enjoy the summer season!

truvision reviews

The Best of TruVision Reviews

TruVision is a brand that is foreign to anyone who is aware of the events in the complimentary business. It is an organization that was founded in 2014 and has many accessible products, and some of them have triggered this revision of TruVision. TruVision products are known for their ability to improve health in a number of ways. A key to healthier living is to discover how to eat healthily, eat the right amount of food, and improve assimilation so that the body can eliminate the negative products of its body.

They have used supplements for improving tranquility (TruSlumber), body science (TruFix) and TruWeight and vitality for weight loss. However, there are also different products, but it is important to note that they require every fixation of a single feature. Having said all that, how about we focus on TruVision TruFix and Trucontrol? The goal of this is to talk about TruVision reviews.

What can TruFix do?

According to our data, TruFix is able to condition the blood and adapt the science of the body. What does that mean? The promotion of representation shows that in the meantime the element can control cholesterol and body sugar. This is especially important for people with diabetes or almost diabetes. It is also important that with all these regular herbal products you can guarantee that your body will no longer affect us as it meets our needs.

The essential ingredients included

– Alpha lipoic corrosive (wings)
– Chrome
– Magnesium
– Cinnulin
– raspberry ketones
– copper

Alpha-lipoic acid

This is a decent cancer screening agent and has been shown to be very powerful. It’s also unbelievable with the conditions of aggravation.


If you have chromosome deficiency, you may find that the supplement is valuable. It is known that chromium helps the body to produce fats as vitality.


Copper is a basic mineral with colossal hostility to oxidative properties.


It is all the less to be underestimated how important magnesium is as a mineral additive. Its ability to restore lower blood circulation and blood sugar makes it an incredible addition.

Raspberry ketones

Raspberry ketones can help to reduce weight.


This is the most intense and deductively proven supplement that the article contains. Cinnulin is a cinnamon remover that reduces glucose spikes and improves glucose utilization in the body. It is also known to control the systolic circulation voltage.

Review of TruVision

What are the cases of TruControl?

The important part of the supplement is TruControl. It is the element to consider the possibility that what you need is an advanced digestion and a component of the misfortune. Each of the fixtures is gluten-free. This is important, the same number of supplements does not have this kind of adaptability. It also begins to end when it breaks in the circulatory system.

The cases of TruControl have the ability to expand body digestion, improve the use of fat, suppress cravings and more.

The real fixings in Trucontrol are:

Cocoa powder – contains the properties of the fiber. This is critical as it sets the direction.

Extraction of green tea – helps with digestion and also improves the essential direction.

Caffeine – acts as a stimulant of the focal sensory system.

Octodrine – logically called dimethylbenzylamine or 2-aminoisoheptane, is a stimulant psychotropic sensory system of focal guidance absorption.

Yohimbine – Mixtures that consume fat, essentially used to lose fat in the middle of fasting here and now.

Together, these supplements are known to have constructive results and additional reactions. The case that TruVision is working comes from strong support.

In Conclusion

TruControl contains amazing supplements that could make it an amazing addition to your lifestyle. We’ve shown that TruVision makes all the normal supplements, and that’s a bit unbelievable to know! With all the different types of products you have, we believe that it is important that you consider all your alternatives. TruVision thins the blood, which is an artificial way to increase blood flow to your heart. However, it is important to note that taking an aspirin a day for heart health should not replace exercise and healthy eating. This review of Truvision should put you in a good position to make the right decision. 

Best Eye Makeup

Read This Controversial Article and Find Out More About Best Eye Makeup

Nowadays everyone has their own personal brand of choice for the makeup products. Some people believe that high-end makeup is worth the money and some says local drugstores are just as good. According to statistics makeup products are one of the most firstly increasing industry. The market is full of products like Eyeshadow, Eye Primer, Eye Liner, Eye Brows, Eye Lashes, Mascara, Under Eye Concealer. There is no shortage of products to spend your hard-earned money on, but the temptation is irresistible. At the high-end, classy molls, they are full of the high-end exclusive brand for a high price. Whereas the local drugstores offer to be convenient and have a fair price tag, in this article we are going to compare between different makeup products and are they worth the price tag?


A well-pigmented eyeshadow can enhance a look for a night it can embolden your eyes with depth and color. In terms of eyeshadow, the local drugstore market can have lack of pigment that high-end brands have. Not all brand has good ones, and some can be patchy all the time. Ardell and LA Girl have the latest eyeshadow pellets that you will find on in every professional makeup artist kits. 

If you are not applying Eye Primer before your eye makeup, you are making a massive makeup up the crime. Applying Eye Primer is very necessary for long-lasting eye makeup. Choosing the right brand of Eye Primer helps in to prevent the melting and smudging of makeup. After comparing different Eye Primer, it has found that W7 has the best Eye Primer available in the market. It will keep your eye makeup as fresh as the time you have applied it all day. W7 Primer usually creases and fade on every one eye. 

Eye Liner 

They say eyes are the window of you and everyone wants to have beautiful looking. Good eyeliner windows are framed with a pigmented a smooth eyeliner. Today in the market we can get the best eyeliner from Ofra and Maybelline. They are providing a wide variety of eyeliner for everyone like a wand, or a pencil, and there’s a perfect eyeliner for everyone. Many drugstore eyeliners also have a good formula that can compete again with Haig end products. 

Eye Brows 

Eye Brows can have a lasting impression on your make schedule. Shaping and filling eyebrows take much time. Complete eyebrows add a new dimension to your face make eyes look more substantial and can completely change the look of a person. Choosing from the drugstore and the high-end product it is recommended to go for the high-end product for perfect eyebrows. The drugstore products have the tendency to give sparse eyebrow and require a heavy hand. Moreover, drugstore eyebrows tend to have lack of shadow range that makes it difficult to math for everyone. 

Eye Lashes 

With Eyelashes, you get a more expressive look on your face and appearance. What if nature has not gifted you with long and thick eyelashes you can always go for a false bottom Eyelashes. The main thing to consider before getting a false Eyelashes is to not concentrate on big brands. Always look for a Eyelashes that is best suited for your eyes and face. False Eyelashes are not only come cheap but also have no allergic reaction and is reusable. Ardell has the best false Eye Lashes that is made of good quality material and is more durable. After using any false Eye, Lashes do clean your eyes with any lotion for removing makeup do the task. 


Mascara is commonly used to enhance the look of the eyelashes. It is used to keep your eyelashes give dark, thick, lengthen, and to define the eyelashes. We have compared different, and Maybelline and Absolute New York produce the best result. Both of them have produced near identical results. They both have the same kind of brush style and promises to provide length, curl and to fan out eyelashes. Maybelline comes at a low price and the formula used provide very sleep and non-clumpy results. 

Under Eye Concealer 

Under Eye Concealer is the savior for everyone. They can light up your face and make you look fresh as morning. Choosing a right Under Eye Concealer can be a hard task. An Under Eye Concealer can make you look alive at any part of a day. Under Eye Concealer not only corrects skin it also helps in the treat at any sign or ageing. Maybelline Under Eye Concealer formula is very creamy and does not crease under eyes. It provides full coverage, doesn’t crease, very easy to blend and its buildable. 

All killer zero filler 

A must rule to follow for everyone to choose the Best Eye Makeup is to research about the product. Moreover, go thoroughly before buying a specific product and spend more money to buy products that you genuinely believe are worth it.

All the Renowned Eye Makeup Brands in One Place with Reasonable Price

All the Renowned Eye Makeup Brands in One Place with Reasonable Price


Bangladeshi is brown skinned so, the Eye Makeup was done by them increase the beauty of their personality. Beauty is the first thing that attracts someone towards yourself. Everyone is beautiful by nature but the one who cares about their skin is more beautiful and their beauty is increased day by day.

Makeup is the tools through which we can enhance our beauty. No doubt your beauty makeup describes your choice and personality before others.

Eyes are the most important equipment of a the human body which enables us to look the beauty of the world in Beautiful eyes of nature’s gift.

Bangladesh is a country where a temperature remains high so the skin is sometimes affected by temperature and sometimes affected by the heavy Sun exposure and there is a dust particle in their environment. Following factors make you troubled but don’t worry there is a productivity material for your skin available at Bangalore Shoppers eye makeup.

Makeup and fashion defines the person the more knowledge you have about makeup the more beautiful look you can give to yourself.

Life is a beautiful journey good makeup adds beautiful colors to it. Fashion is the tool which adds colors to life. Makeup gives the more beautiful look to man.

Everyone wants to look beautiful how much you have cute looks but you are incomplete without good makeup. According to human nature, everyone wants to look beautiful for that try harder and uses every good brand to have a more beautiful look. Especially in parties, gathering, event’s there is a competition that who is having more beautiful and cute look so there everyone tries there harder to have pretty looked as to win this competition of good compliments from all.

For beautiful look to eyes, you need to have best eye makeup to eyes for that you need to pretty look on the following eye parts.


Artificial beauty applied on eyelids and under the eyebrows. The beauty which grooms personality it gives different look to your Outlook. This is the cosmetic which gives a new look to the personality.

While using eyeshadow on the eyes. Eyes look bright, smart and cute.

Eyes are the most beautiful part of a body and good makeup makes eyes more elegant a good eye makeup shine’s the person

It makes everyone attracted to the personal brand choice shows the personality and good brand left a good impact about character.

Ardell, Absolute newyork used by the good beauticians on beautiful people .better eye makeup left the beautiful impression on the minds of people.

Dark eye makeup looks more beautiful on the brown-skinned people are compared to white skin while light makeup also looks beautiful. The more beautiful eye makeup more beauty in eyes. 

Eye Primer

Eye primer is used for long-lasting eyeshadow. Professionals used it for a long duration of time. Beautiful eye makeup remains for a long time. Everyone wants to look beautiful for a long time so for that, Jeffry Star cosmetics can be applied.

Quality a premier shows the smartness while selecting the brains of a makeup.

No doubt Bangladeshi are beautiful but I premier enhance the beauty of eyes Indian peoples Lake High-quality brands. Every man and woman wants to look beautiful for this they must possess the good choice of a brain.

“Brand label define the person”

Best eyes with the best makeup can melt any person in the world and no doubt we are a human being and we all fall in love with beautiful eyes .so makeup then make your eyes the most beautiful part of your body.


Gorgeous eyeliner lifts gorgeous impression. Decent eyeliner helps eyes to look bright and large.

Alix eyeliner brand shines eyes.

Dark eyeliner give more beautiful look eyes look cute in eyeliner.

No doubt Avien brand also gives beautiful look to eyes.

No doubt eyes are precious but eyeliner makes eyes more precious enlight the beauty of eyes.

And these Brands are fully satisfied for Bangladeshi skin and they are specially designed for Bangladeshi skin and Atmosphere.

Bangladeshi people can now get easy to access just because of Bangla shoppers.

Eye Brows

The most beautiful part of eyes is Eye Brows can be also used for communication and facial expressions shown to loved ones the beautiful shape of Eye Brows s lifts more beautiful an expression to the loved ones.

Dark eyebrows are like a beautiful flower in a garden which attracts everyone to have that flower. Which attracts everyone to have that flower.

Without eyebrow men are incomplete and can’t look beautiful it’ll be showing that something is missing if there is no presence of eyebrows.


Eyelashes view the beautiful look of eyes.

Avian can I give you more beauty to eyelashes. If also protect eyes from debris.

Eyelashes are the parts of your eyes which protect your eyes from inflammation and it keeps open your eyes for a long time. Eyelashes provide you water to the eye ball and it keeps eyes frictionless.


Equipment used to enhance the beauty of eyes. It gives unique and different look eyes. The dark mascara the more beauty in eyes.

No doubt and every men and woman want to look beautiful. Mascara adds colors to the beauty of eyes. The benefit of mascara makes you less trouble for fear of being aged. Because this time your eyebrows will not turn into white or any other color because you have the option of mascara.

Under Eye Concealer

It had the readiness of eyes and hide dark circles of eyes. No doubt good eye concealer can remove effects of eyes and can give new look to eyes without any imperfections it makes eyes perfect having a beautiful and glamour look. Eyes are beauty and good makeup enhance this beauty so you can use Banglashoppers best eye makeup.

Readiness occurs when we do not give proper time for sleeping. Keep care of eyes for everlasting beauty use good brands.

Beauty is the thing that matters so always try to look beautiful as much as you can for that you need to do beautiful eye makeup on eyes.

Colorful eyes can attract anyone even the the rudest person so; always try to give the more pretty look to your eyes. 

Truth about Phenofen and Phentermine

Uncovering the truth about Phenofen and Phentermine

The search for a good dieting aid brings to the table a product known as phentermine. After sifting through countless phentermine reviews and extensive research work, the following came to light.  First things first Phenyl-tertiary-butyl-amine, i.e. phentermine is a prescription-only psychostimulant that works to curtail appetite and treat obesity. It is organic in nature and is intended as a weight loss aid to be accompanied with workouts and diets.   


Phentermine was initially approved as an appetite-suppressant when it first graced the market in 1959 to pair weight loss drug Fenfluramine. This popular combination, however, was substantiated to instigate heart valve disease due to the Fenfluramine so the makers removed the compound from the formula and repacked Phentermine on its own. In 2012, Vivus paired phentermine with topiramate to come up with an obesity and weight loss solution. This new combination, unlike its predecessor, was given the green light by the FDA.   

What Phentermine Says It Does  

According to extensive studies and phentermine reviews, the drug works to alter the functioning of neurotransmitters responsible for controlling appetite thereby regulating hunger. Also, it triggers the increased production of adrenaline thus providing energy spikes hence why it is incorporated into workout routines. Its classification as an amphetamine means the drug is available only on a doctor’s prescription. 

Phentermine Composition  

The product is basically a compound. It is made through a process known as the Henry reaction where 2-nitropropane and benzaldehyde interact to create an amino-alcohol. The latter is then imbued with thionyl chloride and the resulting product reduced using hydrogen to form the compound we know as phentermine.    

Is Phentermine effective?  

Going by the many positive phentermine reviews and the feedback of countless weight loss experts who purport it’s a great way to mitigate appetite while keeping energy levels high, then yes, it is very effective. So much so that it has been categorized as a controlled substance to prevent people from taking advantage of its potency.  Phentermine varies in design from one provider to the other. However, its overall working is generally a mainstay.  

The companies who supply the product include:   

  • Eurodrug  
  • iNova  
  • Kwang Dong
  • Vivus  
  • Gate Pharmaceuticals
  • Laboratorios Recalcine  
  • Redusa  
  • Jean-MariePharmacal   

Results and Benefits of Phentermine  

Heaps of phentermine reviews point to the fact that it is a slow-working compound that guarantees significant results. Weight loss is something that doesn’t occur overnight and there is nothing wrong with the compound taking some time to produce results. However, when coupled with the right exercises, diet and correct dosage supervision, everybody agreed that the results were exceptionally good.  From over 2300 phentermine reviews on, the FDA-approved compound amassed an impressive 8.8/10 rating which is a testament to its potency.

Usage Guidelines  

Phentermine can be paired with other drugs or can be used exclusively on its own. Either way, a prescription is required nonetheless. Ingestion methods vary from one manufacturer to the next and also according to doctors’ advice. In general, a dosage is recommended once in 24 hours and on an empty stomach. It should not be taken before bedtime given its ability to interfere with a number of neural pathways which can result in sleeping difficulties.  

While dosage specifications ought to be outlined by a medical expert after a patient’s assessment, the general rule of thumb is a dosage of between 15-37.5 mg. This should be taken at least an hour, but no more than 2, before a meal. For adults below 60, the appropriate time is before breakfast. Children under 16 years shouldn’t use the product. Others to also steer clear of the drug include pregnant women, people living with diabetes and those on other prescription medicine except if advised otherwise by their doctor. Phentermine should also not be taken alongside alcohol given the pair’s ability to induce dizziness.   

Increasing dosage should only be done as per doctors’ advice given that the severity of effects also increases with an uptake of the compound. Withdrawal from Phentermine, on the other hand, should be done gradually by reducing the daily dosage slowly so as to enable the body to adapt to the new changes.   

Possible Side Effects   

Given phentermine is a member of the amphetamine family, its side effects are similar to chemicals of that class and they include:   

  • Increased blood pressure
  • Dry mouth
  • Stomach upsets
  • Restlessness
  • Constipation
  • Headaches
  • Diarrhea
  • Addiction
  • Irritability

Final verdict: Hit or miss? Phentermine reviews are promising, and the product’s longevity is also commendable. However, that there exists only proof for benefits on the short-term is a bit worrying. Also, there are a couple of users who have noted negative side effects which brings us to the bone of contention: does phentermine really work? Well, the jury is still out on this one, however, a cautious yes seems to be the ideal answer to that question.

Speech Therapist in Los Angeles

Valuable Services of a Speech Therapist in Los Angeles

Every parent needs a normal development timeline for their children thus when speech problems arise, they may be thrown into a state of confusion. As a parent, you will probably identify that something is amiss when at three years of age, your child seems slow at speaking and understanding what others are saying. On the flip side of it, you could also have difficulty making sense of his or her speech. However, there is no need for alarm since speech problems among babies have been corrected by specialists from time immemorial. This read is a summary of a thorough analysis of this subject to help you have all you need to know about speech problems in children. For those in California, I recommend you see a speech therapist Los Angeles based provider, in case you feel your child needs help. 


The possibility of a Child Developing Speech Problems.

Findings from Speech Pathology Australia can help us find out the probability of American children having speech problems since both are developed countries. According to the organization, one in seven children has a communication disability. This umbrella term entails various problems such as difficulty in voicing, understanding, and reading and writing which inherently affects the speech of a child. Such statistics are worrying since a considerable chunk of adults are likely to have speech problems if the situation is not mitigated early enough. Therefore, you have to be on the watch out for any signs of speech difficulties in your child.

How to Identify Speech Problems in Children

Any competent speech therapist Los Angeles has to offer, will tell you that parents are the first individuals to note whether their child has speech abnormalities. The typical red flags include not keeping up with their peers when talking and not understanding or communication their needs well. The speech therapists give a list of the various conventional indications that your child has speech issues.

  • People provide a lower prediction of the child’s age due to his or her speech.
  • The child makes inappropriate moves and other mistakes during play.
  • Other children tease the child when they play because of how he or she talks.
  • The Child finds reading and writing burdensome.
  • You and others have trouble understanding the young one.

The role of the Parent

As a parent, you need to have some expectations about how your child should behave speech wise at a given age. If you feel there is inconsistency at any point, then you should seek speech therapy immediately. In this regard, at 18 months, the child should be able to utter about ten names of familiar objects within his or her environment. At two years, the baby should be able to ask for something using two-word combinations. By age three, he or she should follow two-part instructions. At age four, the child constructs whole sentences and pesters you with questions. When he or she attains five years, they should be able to think before answering questions and give coherent responses to why and when questions.

Services Offered at a Speech Therapist

When you walk into the premises of a speech therapist Los Angeles based provider, you will be given guidance and assistance in various fields of communication. The therapist will assess your child and prescribe a schedule for treatment of the speech issue. Their services range from pronunciation difficulties, comprehension problems, stuttering, voicing, swallowing, reading and writing issues, social skills and listening problems. I highly recommend that you visit a speech therapist in the Los Angeles area, when you feel your child needs attention since often you may not have the expertise to identify all the speech problems that need to be addressed.

In summary, giving your child speech therapy when he or she deserves one is the most significant gift you could offer them. When they grow up with such ailments, they find themselves in awkward situations which will derail their performance in the academic as well as the employment world. For instance, people who lisp may not get employed in jobs that involve giving instructions. More so, many children with speech problems battle with isolation from an early stage. This state can lead to a broken social life in the future. Everyone deserves to be happy, and it all starts at the early stages of life. 

Scottish village rolls out FTTP broadband at half normal cost

Scottish village rolls out FTTP broadband at half normal cost


Just under 200 properties around the village of Balquhidder in Stirlingshire, central Scotland, are to receive a full-fibre, or fibre-to-the-premises (FTTP) broadband service after local residents banded together to dig their own trenches and lay their own cables.

Backed with a £100,000 grant from Stirling Council, a similar investment from specialist internet service provider (ISP) Bogons, and rural development funding from the Scottish Leader programme, the Balquhidder Community Broadband (BCB) project has rolled out a gigabit-capable full-fibre network across the area, boosting speeds and hopefully improving economic opportunities.

Located in the Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park, and known as the last resting place of Scottish folk hero Rob Roy, Balquhidder was previously overlooked by commercial broadband roll-outs. But by enlisting little-known ISP Bogons – which is currently converting a disused nuclear bunker in the area into a new datacentre – BCB says it has been able to keep construction costs as low as possible, at a level about half that of a commercial FTTP build.

Project founder, tech entrepreneur and local resident Richard Harris – who currently runs an international artificial intelligence (AI) and augmented reality (AR) company called Two Worlds – said the area around Balquhidder had seen its economic development and resilience crippled by the lack of effective communications.

“Balquhidder, like much of rural Scotland, offers a high quality of life in an active community in stunning surroundings,” said Harris. “I have spent 11 years in efforts that have led to this project, during which time I’ve twice had to move growing companies out of Scotland because of poor communications.

“Without this network, we would soon have had to move out of the area altogether. With it, we can now do the opposite – start to attract more skilled individuals and other companies into the area.”

Tom Lewis, owner of locally based restaurant and hotel operator Mhor Group, said the build had been vital to his business development.

“The markets we target expect and demand a good internet connection,” he said. “Our current satellite feed is really expensive and only lets us provide limited email services to our customers, which has had a negative impact in our corporate conference business.

“It will be transformational once we are connected and finally allowed to manage our businesses in Balquhidder, Callander and Glasgow from our home in Balquhidder.”

Stirling Council’s finance and economy chair, Margaret Brisley, said: “Access to high-speed broadband and connectivity is a major issue for communities in rural Stirling, impacting on economic growth and access to services. The Balquhidder Community Broadband Project is an excellent example of a community providing a solution to this challenge, supported by Stirling Council and private sector partners.

“The council recognises the leadership and commitment shown by the community and is delighted to work in partnership to deliver this project. Providing world-class broadband connectivity to Balquhidder will be transformational, enabling and supporting the economic growth of the area while giving the community full access to services.”

For Bogons, the dig was the first time it has been involved in a community broadband project, but company director Brandon Butterworth said it is now looking to expand its horizons and has already started to develop a wireless ISP proposition around nearby Loch Tay.

“We are looking to help other communities where the community is willing to do the digging and other works for us to install fibre,” he said. “A DIY dig saves the community a significant part of the install cost where any fibre, even fibre to the cabinet [FTTC], has not previously been available.”

Is there life left in 4G mobile networks

Is there life left in 4G mobile networks?


The switch from 3G to 4G was a big transformation for operators, but the next stage will be different. As Lester Thomas, chief systems architect at Vodafone, puts it: “4G’s technical term is LTE – long term evolution – so 4G was always designed to be something that would evolve.”

While 5G trials are ongoing and December 2017 saw the approval of the non-standalone 5G new radio specifications, 4G networks are still reaching maturity, and although some US and Asian operators are touting roll-outs as early as later this year or next, 5G networks are not expected to launch in the UK until 2020.

Research from mobile industry association GSMA, published in February this year, finds that in 2019, 10 years after launch, 4G will have the most connections (more than 3 billion) worldwide.

By 2025, there are expected to be 1.2 billion 5G connections globally, but 4G is still predicted to account for 53% of total mobile SIMs, compared to 29% today, and 5G will account for just 14%.

Estimates suggest 5G will cost tens or hundreds of billions for a network across the US or Europe. Operators have already sunk billions into 4G networks and need to squeeze the maximum return from them, which demands ongoing investment.

Howard Jones, head of network communications at EE, says: “Our 4G investment will continue right through to the middle of the next decade, both from a coverage perspective and from a capacity perspective.”

The company is focused on enhancing 4G in high-density places, rural areas with poor coverage and indoor spaces.

We can do it without 5G

Operators say many of the features associated with 5G, like large multiple input/multiple output (MIMO), beamforming and network slicing, can be achieved to some extent with 4G.

Network slicing allows a physical network to be divided into multiple virtual networks so the operator can provision the right “slice” depending on the requirements of the use case.

But 4G networks can already support it, particularly through network functions virtualisation (NFV) and software-defined networking (SDN) which allow operators to “spin up” and move network capacity around. 5G adds the capability to the radio access network (RAN), to create slices at the edge for low-power applications where sensors have limited battery power or for a very low-latency, high bandwidth application like augmented reality.

“In essence, the way we’ve built the Emergency Services Network (ESN),” says Jones. “It behaves as though it’s a network slice, so it’s LTE, but it’s a fairly early look at what it would be like to have a 5G network where you had a dedicated slice for a particular customer, because we give them top priority on the network and a dedicated core network of their own.”

Further, operators such as Vodafone in the UK have already deployed massive MIMO and beamforming across its network, using multiple antennae to send and receive data more efficiently and boost capacity where lots of people connect to the network at the same time.

The company noted: “While building a full 5G network will take time and 5G isn’t expected to roll out globally until 2020, networks are already being enhanced to keep ahead of demand and bring some of the benefits much sooner.”

4G and 5G working together

Despite advances in 4G, capacity is likely to be the initial driver for implementing 5G. According to Cisco’s latest Visual Networking Index, in 2016, global mobile data traffic amounted to 7 exabytes per month.

In 2021, mobile data traffic worldwide is expected to reach 49 exabytes per month at a compound annual growth rate of 47%. GiffGaff expects global mobile data usage to increase by 720% by 2021, projecting data usage of “a staggering” 98.34 GB by 2025, per SIM, compared to just 1.26 GB in 2016.

To manage these demands and maintain customer experience, 5G will need to support billions of simultaneously connected devices and up to a million connections per square kilometre.

“5G, to some extent will be used to relieve capacity issues in densely populated areas. If you don’t have a lot of roadmap for 4G from a capacity perspective, 5G is the answer,” says Jones.

“The challenge, then, is getting enough users with their compatible devices onto those sites so that you see the benefit of that capacity, so you can shift the user from 4G to 5G, which means more 4G capacity for everybody else,” he says.

New revenues

While data and network demands are rising, telco revenues for traditional services are flat-lining. Recent analysis from IHS Markit found that global telecom revenue grew just 1.1% in 2017, “despite unabated network usage.” The report noted that every region showed either revenue decline or low single-digit growth at most.

Clearly telcos need to find some radical new source of revenue, and 5G offers hope, although not everyone is convinced that the financials stack up yet.

At a Huawei mobile broadband event in November, BT CEO Gavin Patterson said: “We need to finish the job on 4G – we need to make sure we get return on investment, we need to make sure we truly get the use of mobile networks up.

“Then we need to build the use case for 5G – clearly the innovation is there but ultimately, as carriers, we have to make a significant investment and put capex down, and the business case for that still needs to be built in many ways.”

The transition from 3G to 4G was underpinned by going from poor internet experience to one that opened up the internet for mobile – the industry hasn’t found that push yet for 5G.

“5G will be a better experience, but it is opening up the verticals, particularly around the IoT, that will open up new revenue streams,” says Patterson. “Finding use cases is the biggest challenge we have at the moment.”

4G limits

Ericsson forecasts that 5G will generate $1.3 trillion in business value by 2026, and mobile operators could benefit from an additional 34% bump in revenues. The biggest opportunities are seen to be in energy, manufacturing, public safety and healthcare, plus transportation, media and automotive.

Many are “critical” services, which rely on ultra-high reliability and availability (99.9999% availability is anticipated in 5G networks) and ultra-low latency (on a 4G network it’s typically about 50-100 milliseconds but on a 5G network it will be 1 millisecond or less).

“The differrence between 4G at a 100-millisecond delay and 5G at 1 millisecond is in the order of half a car length. Half a car length can mean the difference between life and death,” Kenneth Budka, senior partner at Bell Labs Consulting, said at the Brooklyn 5G Summit in April 2017.

As 5G is a service-oriented architecture (SOA), it can slice the network more easily to support unique use case requirements.

“You can support things that you can’t support today where 4G is like a single architecture,” says Thomas.

Jones at EE notes the potential in new areas too. “We have had a lot of interest from broadcasters looking at 4G to provide them with outside broadcast capabilities,” he says. “However, the nature of 4G means we can’t necessarily prioritise a single customer and provide a guaranteed SLA (service-level agreement).

“That changes with 5G. We can make promises on particular SLAs for a given time period if need be, so the impact of 5G on the broadcast industry could be significant.

“It takes a lot of investment to get there because you’ve got to have coverage,” he says. “But it could bring to life what 5G can do in terms of throughput capabilities and reliability.”

Platform play

Many operators are also looking at the platform business model to boost revenue – that is, offering digital ecosystems connecting producers of goods and/or services with consumers and/or the platform-based IT architecture which supports these models.

The platform business model could be the potential “killer app” for 5G, says Thomas.

Research in 2017 from trade association TM Forum found that more than a third of communications service providers offer digital ecosystems or platform marketplaces already, and another 40% intend to within the next two years.

Vodafone, for example, offers an IoT platform for simple services, such as smart cities with end devices like smart lighting and waste management, with little networking requirement.

In the future, 5G will be needed to cope with the volume, variety and velocity of use cases, with applications from augmented and virtual reality to connected cars and digital health. Also, a central principle of platforms is that its applications keep evolving.

“With a 4G network it was almost like a compromise between bandwidth, latency and cost,” says Thomas. “But 5G, because it has the network slicing and the service-oriented approach, you can tailor the network for each different use cases on the same shared network platform.”

TM Forum’s report concludes that while 5G may not necessarily be critical to the success of platform business models, platforms combined with IoT will be essential to 5G and unlocking new IoT revenue streams that 4G can’t, through combining higher bandwidth with network slicing.

Swedish industry contributes to 5G evolution

Swedish industry contributes to 5G evolution


Industrial companies are keenly looking forward to Ericsson’s launch of 5G services later this year, and have played their part in shaping the technology.

The telecoms giant has worked closely with major companies in its Swedish homeland, including SKF, Boliden and Volvo Cars, and is targeting 5G services at manufacturers that want to implement Industry 4.0 programmes, as well as for general use on smartphones.

In developing the new network protocol, Ericsson has taken on board the ideas behind Industry 4.0, such as smart factories.

Compared with 3G, 4G and LTE, 5G is a faster and better technology for mobile communications. Ericsson’s roll-out of 5G is happening earlier than expected and it plans to start with clients outside Europe.

For example, Stockholm-based Ericsson took the opportunity to give 5G presentations during the Winter Olympics in South Korea. And with operations in most markets across the world, it has many more opportunities to talk to industrial companies about 5G.

Although Nordic companies will not be the first to use the technology, they are already preparing for it by working with Ericsson.

Mats Norin, programme manager, 5G for industries at Ericsson, told Computer Weekly that the firm has worked closely with many Swedish companies to find the best solutions for them and to create interesting use cases. For example, Ericsson engineers have been collaborating with roller bearings manufacturer SKF, mining company Boliden and Volvo Cars.

Industrial users of 5G will benefit from improved speed and a unified high-performing network, which will help them to use the internet of things (IoT) more extensively and improve robotics, for example.

Current technology such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and cables are not nearly as good to meet industries’ needs, and 5G’s lower latency and higher capacity will make a huge difference.

Ericsson, whose history as a telecoms provider dates back to 1876, has a huge market share worldwide for 5G’s network predecessors, LTE, 4G and 3G.

Mining company Boliden is one of Sweden’s future 5G users. Ericsson has conducted tests in one of Boliden’s mines and considers it an interesting case. More and more work in the mining industry is automated and new technology is taken up quickly because it improves security and productivity.

The automotive industry is another example. Jonas Rönnkvist, director of business development and strategy for Volvo’s consumer IT division, told Computer Weekly that Volvo cars have been connected to mobile networks since 2000 and, like other industrial companies, it has to keep up with the latest developments in mobile networks.

A mobile network technology usually lasts only eight or nine years before a new, improved generation comes in. But network providers are often in a hurry to launch new technologies to replace the old, and that can cause problems for users.

For instance, Norway has announced that it will close its 3G network soon, said Rönnkvist, nine years after 3G came onto the scene. But a new car needs technology that lasts as long as possible, he said, so it is a bit of a puzzle to get the right technology and functions into the right car at the right time.

Volvo may be happy that new, improved technology is on the way, but it does cause a lot of work. The company is currently heavily involved in developing self-driving cars in a joint venture with Autoliv called Zenuity. The entertainment systems for such cars are expected to play an important role when the occupant no longer has to focus on driving, raising the profile of mobile technology. But that is some years ahead, and Rönnkvist expects 6G and 7G to have followed 5G by then.

One thing that Volvo cars can already do with current mobile networks is to send and receive messages between cars. For instance, if one car discovers that a road is slippery, a warning is sent to other connected cars on the same road. Volvo also uses mobile networks to upload new software into its cars, and a third area is car-sharing with friends, with a mobile phone serving as the key. This technology was launched with Volvo’s XC40, recently named European Car of the Year for 2018.

Government sets deadline for affordable 10Mbps broadband

Government sets deadline for affordable 10Mbps broadband


All UK citizens will be legally entitled to access to an affordable broadband connection of at least 10Mbps by 2020, the government has announced.

Regulator Ofcom has been set the deadline as part of a broadband universal service obligation (USO).

“Ofcom now has up to two years to implement the scheme, meaning that by 2020, everyone in the UK will have a legal right to an affordable connection of at least 10Mbps, from a designated provider, no matter where they live or work, up to a reasonable cost threshold,” said the government.

Digital minister Margot James said the announcement puts high-speed broadband on a similar footing as other essential services, such as water and phone lines.

The government said that only through a regulatory USO could the “sufficient certainty and legal enforceability” be achieved to ensure high-speed broadband access for the whole of the UK by 2020.

According to Ofcom’s Connected nations 2017 report, 4% of premises are without 10Mbps broadband download, compared with 6% in 2016.

The government said that “95% of the UK already has access to superfast broadband, and the USO will provide a digital safety net for those in the most remote and hardest-to-reach places”.

The USO said the cost should not exceed £3,400 for each premises and the minimum speed requirement will be kept under review and is expected to increase over time.

The government and Ofcom will run a process to select the universal service provider(s) that will be required to offer the service, with small as well large providers given an opportunity.

In July 2017, telecoms giant BT made a formal offer to become the designated universal service provider for the USO, which would have cost BT between £450m and £600m. At the time, culture secretary Karen Bradley said the government “warmly welcomed BT’s offer” and would consider it alongside the lengthy consultation on the USO.

However, Bradley announced in December that the government did not think the offer was strong enough to take the regulatory USO “off the table”. …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………